Culture and Civilization 1
Andrea Martínez
Profesorado Superior de Lenguas Vivas / Salta
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Andrea Martínez
Creado: 07.05.2013 @ 3:19:34 am
Estado del Foro: Abierto
Persian and Peloponnesian Wars

In class, we said that Athens was democratic, progressive, urban, imperialistic and intellectually and artistically advanced; in contrast, Sparta was aristocratic, conservative, agrarian and culturally backward. How did these differences affected their relationship? Why do we said that Athens was completely humbled  after the Persian and  Peloponnesian Wars that she never again played an eminent role in politics? BRIEFLY name the causes and consequences of these two wars. 

Conceptos clave: war
Rocìo Dìaz
Creado: 15.05.2013 @ 1:37:06 am
Peloponesian and Persian war, and their consecuences on Athens

The Athenias had to face two important wars, one with the Persians, and a second one with the Spartans.

The war with Persia was caused by the expansion of the Persian into te eastern Mediterranean area. The Persian send a powerful army and fleet to attack the Greek, this war lasted for about fourteen years. The victory of the Greeks ended the threaten period inflicted by the Persians.

The second war, and the most important for it ended in tragedy, was against Sparta and it is known as the Peloponesian war. There were many causes that led to this conflict. Firstly, the growth of Athenian Imperialism. Athens joined with other Greek states to form the alliance known as the Delian League, Secondly, the differences between Athens and Sparta. Athenians though Spartans as barbarians, and these feared that Athenians would gain control over the northern Peloponesian states and thus encoureging rebellion. Thirdly, economic issues. Athenians wanted to dominate Corinthian Gulf, which was used as a path for trading with Sicily and southern Italy. Corinth was allied to Sparta, therefore they saw Athen as an enemy.

After these two important wars, Athens changed in many aspects. Her trade was destroyed, as well as her democracy. Many people perished of pestilence, and also suffered of treason, corromption and brutality Her allies abandoned her, and therefore food supply was cut off. Although Greek culture was still bright, politically they were prostrate and helpless

 

Cintia Mariana Castillo
Creado: 15.05.2013 @ 12:15:50 am
Persian Wars-Peloponnesian Wars

Persian Wars:
Causes: The autonomy of the Greek city-states fostered fierce competition and commercial rivalry. Later on, Persia annexed Ionia, one of the Greek region on the coast of Asia Minor. Due to this, in 499 B,C,E when the Ionian cities revolted against Persian rule and their Greek neighbors came to their aid the Persian looked for retaliation. They sent military expeditions to punish the rebel cities of the Greek mainland.
Consequences: Due to the defeat of Persia, Athens claimed the crown of victory and assumed political dominion among the city-states. This victory also inspired a mood of confidence and a spirit of vigorous civic patriotism which brought an age of drama, philosophy, music, art, and architecture known as the Greek Golden Age.

Peloponnesian Wars (431-404 B.C.E.):
Causes: The antagonism and armed dispute between Athens and a federation of rival city-states led by Sparta were caused by Pericles' high-handed actions, along with his imperialistic efforts to dominate the commercial policies of league members.
Consequences: The defeat of Athens brought mainly an end to the Greek Golden Age accompanied by the lost of their distinguished political and civic role.

lorena maria celeste dominguez
Creado: 14.05.2013 @ 10:43:55 pm
THE TWO WARS

Persian war: The problems between the Greeks and the empire of the Persians began when it conquered Iona in Asia Minor, which in 499 B.C.E. revolted against Persia rule so the Athenian went to help them. The Persian sent its army to attack the rebel cities of Greece, which was considered a threat to the stability of the Persian Empire. The war began in 493 B.C.E. and later Thrace and Macedon were also conquered, later the Persian force was defeated by the Athenians at the Battle of Marathon. The victory of the Hellenic alliance (the Delian League and the Peloponnesian League) at Salamis and finally at Plataea put an end to the Persian invasion. The war strengthened the democracy in Athens, which assumed political supremacy among the city-states and adopted a spirit of chauvinism ushered in an age of drama, philosophy, music, art and architecture (Golden Age). Peloponnesian war: The causes of this war were the growth of the Delian League as the Athenian empire, which began to dominate the other city-states and to impose tribute upon them as if they were conquered states, the league collective funds were moved to Athens and they were used for her own interests. Another provocation was an Athenian sanction on Megarians (a Spartan ally after the First Peloponnesian War 460 -445 B.C.E) for trading in all the harbors of Athens. The Spartan leaders feared that the Athenians would use their superiority to destroy Spartan control over the members of the Peloponnesian League. Also both were very different and had been hostile for years. The Peloponnesian war culminated in the victory and the establishment of the Sparta hegemony over Greece. Athens democracy was destroyed, it population decimated by an epidemic disease that also took Pericles life. Sparta was established as the leading power of Greece, while Athens found itself completely devastated, and never regained its pre-war prosperity. The conflict between the democratic Athens and the oligarchic Sparta made civil war very common in the Greek world. The war annihilated freedom in Greece, oligarchies replaced democracies, and confiscation of properties and assassination were employed to combat opposition.

Vanesa Alejandra Navarro
Creado: 14.05.2013 @ 8:46:27 pm
THE TWO WARS: PERSIAN AND PELOPONNESIAN WARS

PERSIAN WAR: Persian Empire had conquered most of the territories between the western frontier of India and Asia Minor. In 499 B.C.E the Ionian cities revolted against Persian rule and the Greek aided them. In retaliation, the Persian sent military expeditions to punish the Greek. In 490 B.C.E a Greek force of 11,000 me met a Persian army with twice its numbers and defeatesd them and so then started the Greek Golden Age.

PELOPONNESIAN WAR: In the wake of the Persian Wars, Pericles encouraged the Greek city-states to form a defensive alliance against future invaders. The league´s collective funds were kept in a treasury on the sacred island of Delos, but Pericles moved the fund to Athens and expropriated its monies to rebuild the Athenian temples that had been burned by the Persians. Pericles´actions armed dispute between Athens and a federation of rival city-states led by Sparta. The ensuing Peloponnesian Wars culminated in the defeat of Athens, and the end of the Greek Golden Age. 

Vanesa Alejandra Navarro
Creado: 14.05.2013 @ 8:44:49 pm
THE TWO WARS: PERSIAN AND PELOPONNESIAN WARS

PERSIAN WAR: Persian Empire had conquered most of the territories between the western frontier of India and Asia Minor. In 499 B.C.E the Ionian cities revolted against Persian rule and the Greek aided them. In retaliation, the Persian sent military expeditions to punish the Greek. In 490 B.C.E a Greek force of 11,000 me met a Persian army with twice its numbers and defeatesd them and so then started the Greek Golden Age.

PELOPONNESIAN WAR: In the wake of the Persian Wars, Pericles encouraged the Greek city-states to form a defensive alliance against future invaders. The league´s collective funds were kept in a treasury on the sacred island of Delos, but Pericles moved the fund to Athens and expropriated its monies to rebuild the Athenian temples that had been burned by the Persians. Pericles´actions armed dispute between Athens and a federation of rival city-states led by Sparta. The ensuing Peloponnesian Wars culminated in the defeat of Athens, and the end of the Greek Golden Age. 

Alejandro Pérez
Creado: 14.05.2013 @ 8:27:32 pm
PERSIAN AND PELIPONNESIAN WARS

The Persian Wars

By the sixth century B.C.E., the Persian Empire had conquered most of the territories between the western frontier of India and Asia Minor. Advancing westward, Persia annexed Ionia, The Greek region of the coast of Asia Minor, a move that clearly threatened mainland Greece. Thus, when in 499 B.C.E. the Ionian cities revolted against Persian rule, their Greek neighbours come to their aid. In retaliation the Persians sent military expeditions to punish the rebel cities of the Greek mainland. In 490 B.C.E., on the plain Marathon, 25 miles from Athens, a Greek force of 11,000 men met a Persian army twice its number and defeated them, losing only 192 men. Persian causalities exceeded 6000. The Greek warrior who brought news of the victory at marathon to Athens died upon completing the 26-mile run (hence the word “marathon” has come to designate a long-distance endurance contest.) but the Greek soon realized that without a strong navy even the combined land forces of all the city-states could no hope to oust the Persians. Thus they proceeded to build a fleet of warships, which, in 480 B.C.E. ultimately defeated the Persians armada at Salamis, one of the final battles of the Persian Wars. The war, which began in 493 B.C.E. and lasted with interludes of peace for about fourteen years, is commonly regarded as one on the most significant in the history of the world. The decisive victory of the Greeks put an end to the menace of Persian conquest and forestalled at least for a time the submergence of Hellenic ideals of freedom on Near eastern despotism. They also had the effect of strengthening democracy in Athens and making that state the leading power in Greece

The Peloponnesian Wars

The Peloponnesian war was an ancient Greek war fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. The causes of the Peloponnesian are quite significant in the history of Athena. The first and most important cause was the growth of Athenian imperialism. In the last year in the war with Persia, Athens had joined with a number of other Greek states in the formation of an offensive and defensive alliance known the Delian League.  As time went on, Athens gradually transformed the league into a naval empire for the advancement of her own interests. She tried to reduce all the other members to a condition of vassalage, and when one of them rebelled, she overwhelmed it by force, seized it navy, and imposed tribute upon it as if it were a conquered state. Such high-handed methods arouse the suspicious of the Spartans, who feared that an Athenian hegemony would soon be extended over all Greece. A second major cause was to be found in the social and cultural differences between Athens and Sparta. Athena was democratic, progressive, urban, imperialistic and intellectually and artistically advanced. Sparta, on the other hand was aristocratic, conservative, agrarian, provincial and culturally backward. Athenians looked the Spartans as uncouth barbarians. The Spartans accused the Athenians of attempting to gain control over the northern Peloponnesian states. Economic factors also played a large part in bringing the conflict to the head. Athens was ambitious to dominate the Corinthian Gulf, the principal avenue of trade with Sicily and southern Italy. This made her deadly enemy of Corinth, the chief ally of Sparta. Consequently the war was a record of frightful calamities for Athens. Her trade was destroyed, her democracy overthrown, and her population decimated by a terrible pestilence. Treason, corruption and brutality were among the hastening ills of the last few years of the conflict. Ultimately, deserted by all her allies except Samos and with her food supply cut off, Athens was left with no alternative but to surrender or starve. The terms imposed upon her drastic enough: destruction of her fortifications, surrender all foreign possessions and practically her entire navy, and submission to Sparta as a subject state.  

 

 

Carolina Herrera
Creado: 14.05.2013 @ 7:46:20 pm
Persian and Peloponnesian Wars

The Persians wars were a series of battles fought between Ancient Greece and Persia. The most relevant cause was simply that Persians wanted to rule Greece. Persians had been conquered most of the territories between the western frontier of Asia Minor and India, so Greeks felt threatened and helped their neighbours, the Ionian cities. In 490 B.C.E, on the plain of Marathon, a Greek force defeated a Persian army twice its number. After that they realized that they needed a strong and big navy to expel the Persians, so they built a fleet of warships, which in 480 B.C.E, defeated the Persian armada at Salamis.

Peloponnesian wars

In Pericles’s time, he encouraged the Greek city-states to form a defensive alliance against future invaders, after Persian wars experience, so it led on the conformation of the Delian League”. Pericles moved the fund to Athens and expropriates its money in order to rebuild Athenian temples which had been burnt by the Persians. Therefore, these high-handed actions were the principal causes of antagonism and disputes between Athens and a federation of rival city-states led by Sparta. The Peloponnesian wars lasted twenty-seven years and culminated in the defeat of Athens.

After these wars Athens was completely humbled and she never again played an eminent role in politics because the Hellenic world had become less united and incapable of confronting Persia. Moreover, the postwar division and constant struggles between Athens, Sparta and Thebes enabled Persia to intervene in Hellenic political arrangements. 

 

Mariela Calisaya
Creado: 14.05.2013 @ 6:04:23 pm
Persian and Peloponnesian wars

PERSIAN WARS
All the Greek city-states shared the same language, traditions, and religion but each polis governed itself. The Persian Empire had conquered a lot of territories between the western frontier of India and Asia Minor. Persia annexed Ionia (a Greek region) and the Ionian cities revolted against persian rule. All the Greek city-states came to their aid. They defeated the Persian army.
PELOPONNESIAN WARS
A
thens became the first direct democracy in the world history. Athens stands in constrast to its rival, Sparta, the largest polis on the Peloponnesus. It was an oligarchy city. The leadind proponent of Athenian democraty was the statesman Pericles. He moved the funds kept in a treasury on the sacred island of Delos to Athens. It was to rebuild the Athenian temples burned by the Persians. It caused a an armed dispute between Athens and Sparta. The ensuing Peloponnesian Wars, which culminated in the defeat of Athens. 

Gisela Cruz
Creado: 14.05.2013 @ 4:13:50 pm
Persian and Peloponnesian Wars
THE PERSIAN WARS Causes: *By the sixth century B.C.E. the Persian Empire was hunger for power and had already conquered most of the territories between the western frontier of India and Asia Minor. *Persia conquered Ionia and by the 499 B.C.E. the Ionian cities rose up against Persian authority with some help from other Greek city-states. Consequences: *Persia took vengeance on this revolt by sending military expeditions to punish the rebel Greek cities. *In 490 B.C.E., on the plain of Marathon, a Persian army was defeated by a Greek force of 11,000 men. *The Greeks built a fleet of warships and by 489 B.C.E. they used them to defeat the Persian armada at Salamis. *Finally in 449 B.C.E. the signing of the peace agreement gave an end to the Persian Wars when Persia gave up to his intentions of conquering Greek lands. *As a result, Athens made firm his hegemony over other Greek city-states. THE PELOPONESIAN WARS Causes: *In 478 B.C.E. many Greek city-states joined the ´Delian League´. It was a military alliance to resist future invasions by collecting funds that were kept in a treasury on the sacred island of Delos. *In a sign of ´chauvinism´ Pericles moved the funds to Athens and used them to rebuild the Athenian temples destroyed by the Persians. *Athens showed a great political, artistic and cultural domain over the rest city-states, known as the Greek Golden Age. Most of the Greek city-states created some kind of hostility towards this ´Athenian Empire´. Consequences: *In 431 B.C.E. Sparta began a confrontation with Athens because of the aid this city-state had gave to Corfu in a dispute with Corinth, which was Sparta’s ally. *The Peloponnesian Wars, between Athens and Sparta, lasted until 404 B.C.E. when Sparta defeated their rival. *As a consequence, Sparta became very powerful and reigned over Athens and the other Greek city-states. Athens lost his democracy and all the achievements they had reached.
Rafael Salazar
Creado: 14.05.2013 @ 3:48:58 pm
Persian and Peloponnesian Wars

The Persian Wars

The Persians wars were a series of battles fought between Ancient Greece and Persia. Greece and Persia were both ancient civilizations. The Greeks were a series of independents city states, the most powerful were Athens and Sparta. Athens had many great philosophers and thinkers along with having the world’s first democracy for a government. The Spartans on the other hand were a military city state. The Persian Empire stretched from modern day Turkey to Afghanistan. They had conquered most of the lands and forced many of the men to fight in their superior military. The Persians were able to govern their huge empire by using Satraps, or regional rulers.

Causes:

  • Persians wanted to rule Greece. The Persians saw Greece as simply an independent nation which would make a nice addition to the Persian Empire.
  •  By the sixth century B.C.E., the Persian Empire had conquered most of the territories between the western frontier of India and Asia Minor. Advancing westward, Persia conquered Ionia,the Greek region on the coast of Asia Minor.
  • The Greek colony of Ionia had asked for the Greeks to aid them in a rebellion against Persia(499 BCE). The Greeks sent soldiers and supplies to the rebels and helped the Ionians burn the city of Sardis. Xerxes was not so amused at this and he sent a huge invasion force to punish the Greeks for their actions.
  • In 490 BCE, on the plain of Marathon, 25 miles from Athens, a greek force of 11,000 men met a Persian army with twice its numbers and defeated them.

Effects:

  • After the Persian war most of the Greek city states joined the Delian League. The Delian league was the group of city states that banded together to prepare in case of another Persian invasion. Athens led the Delian league.
  • With the help of their leader Pericles Athens began to dominate the Delian league and take advantage of it. Since Athens was the undisputed leader the Athenians took some of the leagues funds and used them to rebuild the Athenian temples that had been burned by the Persians.
  •  After Athenian imperialistic efforts led by Pericles, the Spartans grew jealous and suspicious of Athens. The Spartans backed by their allies on the Peloponnesus peninsula eventually declared war on Athens ( The Peloponnesian Wars).

The peloponnesian wars:

Athens and Sparta had cooperated during the Persian War, but relations between these two most powerful states in mainland Greece deteriorated in the decades following the Greek victory over the Persian Empire in 480 B.C.E. The Peloponnesian War was the result of this conflict.

Causes:

  • The Greek Golden Age, which brought changes in the local governments of Greece.
  • Athenian democracy vs Spartan oligarchy.
  • Pericles' domestic reforms; foreign policy; and the expropiation of Delian League funds to rebuild Athenian temples.

Effects:

  • The Peloponnesian war was held from 431 BCE to 404 BCE.
  • The war culminated with the defeat of Athens, which brought an end to the Greek Golden Age.
  • The Spartans abolished democracy and installed an oligarchy.
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