Culture and Civilization 1
Andrea Martínez
Profesorado Superior de Lenguas Vivas / Salta
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Andrea Martínez
Creado: 24.09.2013 @ 9:17:31 am
Estado del Foro: Abierto
Architecture

Explain the origins and characteristics of the Medieval architectural styles: Romanesque and Gothic in the West and Islamic in the East.

Conceptos clave: art
Rafael Salazar
Creado: 01.10.2013 @ 4:54:48 pm
Architecture

 

Romanesque style, after the year 1000, started when the Benedictine abbey of Cluny in southeastern France launched a movement for monastic revitalization that witnessed the construction of more than 1000 monasteries and abbey churches. Romanesque architecture is characterized by its arches, gloomy interiors in the buildings due to the lack or few small windows in the walls. The walls were made of heavy stones and the churches ‘interior resembled a cross. Churches were just for religious festivities. In the fachades there were religious ornamentations about Jesus, the Virgin Mary etc. The main purpose of these ornamentations was to retell biblical important events to illiterate people who visited the churches in pilgrimages.
The Gothic Style was born in northern France around the 12th century and spread quickly throughout medieval Europe, it was characterized by the high pointed columns in the towers. The interior of churches also resembled a cross but they were wider. Different types of events were made there, not only religious. The building had bigger windows than in Romanesque style, and they were ornamented with colour glasses with pictures of the bible.
In the case of Islamic architecture, the mosque is the most important building for Muslims. These are enormous prayer buildings. There are no altars of any kind. Mosques have high columns and domes decorated with bright colours. The most important Mosques are in Cordoba Spain and in Mecca.  

 

Gabriela Isabel Pàrraga
Creado: 01.10.2013 @ 12:33:34 pm
Arquitecture

Christian Pilgrims determined the plan of the pilgrimage church. To provide additional space for shrines, architects enlarged the eastern end of the church to include a number radiating chapels. In the Early Christian church as in the Carolingian abbey the width of the nave was limited by the size and availability of roofing timber, and the wooden super structure itself was highly sucsceptible to fire. 
Romanesque arquitects employed round arches and a uniform system of stone vaults in the upper zones of the nave and side aisles. While the floor plan of the typical Romanesque church followed the Latin cross design or Early Christian and Carlingian churches.
Some features of the medieval church arquitecture: massive towers pointed heavenlenward and made the church visible from great distances; stone portals separated the secular from the divine realm and dramatized the entrance door as the gateway to salvation.
The gothic style was born in the northern France  and spread quickly throughout medieval Europe.
Like all Christian churches, the gothic cathedral was and sanctuary for the celebration of the Mass.
The gothic cathedral honoured one or more saints, including and especially the Virgin Mary. Indeed most of the prominent churches of the Middle Ages were dedicated to Notre Dame.
In the cathedral, the medieval synthesis was realized: sculpture appeared in its protrals, capitals, and choir,screens, stained glass diffused divine light, through its windows, painted altarpieces embellished its chapels. 

Carla Cañari Arcangel
Creado: 01.10.2013 @ 12:23:33 pm
Architecture

Romanesque Architecture emerged during the Middle Ages or the Medieval era. Romanesque Architecture is the term used to describe the building styles which were used between  800 AD to 1100 AD.The origin of Romanesque Architecture is strongly influenced by the religious fervour of the period which resulted in the construction of many Romanesque churches in England.Some characteristics of Romanesque style are the round or slightly pointed arches, barrel vaults,  cruciform piers supporting vaults and small windows.

Gothic Architecture emerged following the Romanesque arquitecture style . Gothic architecture is the term used to describe the building styles which were used between 1200 to 1500.Some characteristics of Gothic style are the Latin cross design, the pointed arch, elaborated facades, pointed towers, rose windows, stained glass, rib vaults flying buttresses and gargoyles. 

Islamic architecture. The mosque is the official Muslim place of worship.Its architecture is characterized by domes ,minarets, hypostyle,courtyard ,horse-shoe shaped arches and double-tiered columns.

María Mercedes Villafanes Roldán
Creado: 01.10.2013 @ 12:04:53 pm
Medieval Architectural Styles

ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE:The Great Mosque and the Dome of the Rock are two examples of Islamic architectural ingenuity: the first for its inventive disposition of horseshoe_shaped arches, the second for its domed, octogonal plan and dazzling mosaics.Resistant to image-making, Islamic religious art is dominated by geometric, floral, and calligraphic motifs, often interlaced in patterns of infinite extension. Secular manuscripts, such as herbals and chronicles, feature lively scenes of everyday activities. ROMANESQUE CHURCH: Largely rural, the churches were gathering pints for pilgrims who traveles to visit the holy relics of saint and martyrs enshrined in church chapels.Since pilgrims contituted a major source of revenue for European towns and churches, pariches competed for them by enlarging church interiors. They revived the systems of stone vauting used by Romans. Built on a Latin cross plan, the Romanesque church features round arches and thick barrel and groin vaults.The Romanesque style, characterized by lively linearity and vivid imagination, is apparent in stone sculpture of entrance portals and historiated capitals, as well as in illuminated manuscripts.THE GOTHIC CATHEDRAL: The gothic cathedral was the focus and glory of the medieval town. The cathedral was an ingenuous synthesis of three structural elements: rib vaults, pinted arches and flying buttresses.Often large enough to hold the entire population of a town, the Gothic cathedral was the centre of the urban community. It attracted civic events, public festivals, theatric performances, and local business.The great cathedrals, most of which were dedicated  to the Virgin, portrayed her as Mother of God, Bride of Christ, and Queen of heaven. The image of Mary as a paragon of virtue and chastity contituted an ideal feminine type.The medievan cathedral represents the point of synthesis at which all of the arts served a common, unified purpose. 

Romina Solis
Creado: 01.10.2013 @ 11:40:59 am
Architecture

Romanesque Style

ü  Stone barrel and groin vaults of the kinds first used by the Romans.

ü  Romanesque architects employed round arches and a uniform system of stone vaults in the upper zones of the nave and side aisles.

ü  Tripartite division and three round arches captures the geometric simplicity and rugged severity typical of the Romanesque Style in France and England.

Gothic Style:

ü  The Gothic cathedral honores one or more saints, including and especially the Virgin Mary.

ü  Suger´s  designs for the east end of the church called for a combination of three architectural innovations: the pointed arch, the rib vault, and stained glass windows.

ü  The ingenious combination of rib vault had a major impact on the size and elevation of Gothic structures.

ü  The nave wall consisted of an arcade of piers bundles that swept from floor to ceiling, an ornamental triforium gallery, and a large clerestory consisting of rose and lancet windows.

ü  Above the clerestory hung elegant canopies of quadripartite or sexpartite rib vaults.

ü  Gothic architects embellished the structural extremities of the cathedral with stone crockets and finials.

ü  At the upper portions of the building, gargoyles were believed to ward off evil.

Islamic Style:

ü  The official Muslim place of worship is the mosque: a large, columned hall whose square or rectangular shape derives from the simple urban house made of sun-dried bricks.

ü  Every mosque is oriented toward Mecca, and that direction is marked by a niche located in the wall.

ü  At Cordoba, horseshoe-shaped arches consisting of contrasting wedges of white marble and red sandstone crown a forest of ornamental pillars.

 

ü  In some parts of the structure, multilobed arches are set in `piggyback´ fashion, creating further ornamental rhythms. 

Patricia Peñalba
Creado: 01.10.2013 @ 11:14:20 am
Romanesque, Gothic and Islamic style.

Romanesque

Romanesque, prevalent in medieval Europe during the 11th and 12th centuries, was the first pan-European style since Roman Imperial Architecture and examples are found in every part of the continent. The term was not contemporary with the art it describes, but rather, is an invention of modern scholarship based on its similarity to Roman Architecture in forms and materials. Romanesque is characterized by a use of round or slightly pointed arches, barrel vaults, and cruciform piers supporting vaults.

Gothic

The various elements of Gothic architecture emerged in a number of 11th- and 12th-century building projects, particularly in the Île de France area, but were first combined to form what we would now recognise as a distinctively Gothic style at the12th century abbey church of Saint-Denis in Saint-Denis, near Paris. Verticality is emphasized in Gothic architecture, which features almost skeletal stone structures with great expanses of glass, pared-down wall surfaces supported by external flying buttresses, pointed arches using the ogive shape, ribbed stone vaults, clustered columns, pinnacles and sharply pointed spires. Windows contain beautiful stained glass, showing stories from the Bible and from lives of saints. Such advances in design allowed cathedrals to rise taller than ever, and it became something of an inter-regional contest to build a church as high as possible.

Islamic

Islam is the religious faith preached by the Arab prophet Mohammed. During the five hundred years after Mohammed's death in A.D. 632, Islam spread far beyond its place of origin in the Arabian Peninsula. The followers of Mohammed, called Muslims, conquered the rest of the Middle East, as well as North Africa, Spain, central Asia, and north and central India. Most of the conquered people accepted the Islamic religion.

As Islam spread, a distinctive style of Islamic art gradually developed. It was used mainly for religious architecture, book illustrations, and the decoration of pottery, metalware, and other useful objects. Islamic art was influenced by the artistic styles of the conquered regions. These styles included late Roman, Byzantine, and Persian art.

The development of Islamic art was also influenced by two religious restrictions. Mohammed warned artists not to imitate God, the creator of all life, by making images of living things. Most religious art therefore consisted of ornamental designs that did not represent people or animals. The second restriction discouraged the use of costly materials. Islamic artists, therefore, worked mainly with brass, clay, and wood. They learned to decorate objects made of these less expensive materials so skillfully that they looked as beautiful as silver or gold.

Characteristics

Islamic artists used Arabic script (which is read from right to left) as part of their designs for religious books, wall decorations, and art objects. (calligraphy)

The religious buildings known as mosques, where Muslims worship, are among the most important examples of Islamic architecture. Other kinds of buildings include madrasahs, or religious schools; tombs; and palaces.

 

 

 

Adriana Alanis
Creado: 01.10.2013 @ 10:46:15 am
Medieval Architectural Styles: Romanesque and Gothic in the West and Islamic in the East

Romanesque architecture
After the year 1000,the Benedictine abbey of Cluny launched a movement for monatic revitalization that witnessed the construction of more than 1000 monasteries and abbey churches throughout Western Europe. The new churches housed the holy relics of saints and martyrs brought from the Holy land that attracted thousands of Christian pilgrims. 
Since pilgrims constituted a major source of revenue for European town and churches, parishes competed for them enlarging church interiors and increasing the number of relics. The return in the use of stone barrel and groing vaults of the kind of those used by the Romans, inagurated the Romanesque style.
The main characteristics of this style are:

  • use of round arches and uniform system of stone vaults in the upper zones of the nave and side aisles
  • the floor followed the Latin cross design of Early Christian and Carolingian churches
  • geometric simplicity
  • massive towers pointed heavenward
  • stone portals and smalls windows 
Gothic architecture
Gothic style was born in northern France and spread quickly throughout medieval Europe. 
The Gothic Cathedral was a sanctuary for the celebration Mass, reflecting a shift of intellectual life from the monastery to the town and it was also the administrative seat of a bishop, the ecclesiastical authority and a educational center. 
The Gothic cathedrals have the following characteristics:
  • sculpture in the portals, capitals, and choir screens
  •  employed three architectural innovations: the pointed arch, the rib vault and stained glass windows
  • used the Latin cross design 
Islamic architecture
The Great Mosque is one f the noblest examples of Early Islamic architeture. 
Some of Islami architecture features are:
  • horse-shoe-shaped arches
  • double-tiered columns 
  • Islamic architects didn't use sculptures or pictorial representations
  • beautiful ornaments with 3 types of motifs: geometric, floral and calligraphic
  • bold use of color executed in mosaics and polychrome patterned glazed tiles
Macarena Patagua Alvarez
Creado: 01.10.2013 @ 10:01:46 am
Architecture

Romanesques style. Medieval architects returned to the use of stone barrel and and groin vaults, first used by the Romans, innagurated the Romanesques Style. Here architecs employed arches and a system of stones vaults in upper zones of the naveand side aisles. the floor ollowed the Latin cross design of Early Christian and Carolingian Churches; this system allowed them to built on a grander scalethan ever before.
Gothic syle. It was born in northern Franceand spread quickly throughout Europe. Consists on the convination on the combination of three architectural innovations: the pointed arch, the rib vault, and the stained glass windows. The convination had an impact on the size nd elevation o Gothic structures; the nave wall consisted of an archade of pier bundles that swept front floor to ceilling, and ornamental triforium gallery, and a large clerestory consisting of rose ("wheel") and lancet (verticali point) windows. And canopies of cuatripartite or sexpartite rib vault hung above the clerestory.

Alejandra Zuleta
Creado: 01.10.2013 @ 9:45:38 am
Medieval architectural styles

 

Medieval architectural styles:

The ROMANESQUE architecture:

Romanesque architecture was the first distinctive style to spread across Europe since the Roman Empire.

After the year 1000, a movement of monastic revitalization witnessed the construction of thousands of monasteries and abbey churches throughout Western Europe.

The new churches enshrined relics- the remains of saints and martyrs among other objects of holy veneration.

The monastic churches that housed the holy relics attracted thousand of pilgrims, who seek pardon for sins or pay homage to a particular saint.

Like the Crusades, this pilgrimage was an expression of increased mobility and economic revitalization. Since pilgrims constituted a major source of revenue of towns and churches, the need of increasing in number emerged.

Romanesque characteristics are:

* Walls: The walls of Romanesque buildings are often of massive thickness with few and comparatively small openings. They are often double shells, filled with rubble.

* Buttresses: Because of the massive nature of Romanesque walls, buttresses are not a highly significant feature, as they are in Gothic architecture. Romanesque buttresses are generally of flat square profile and do not project a great deal beyond the wall. In the case of aisled churches, barrel vaults, or half-barrel vaults over the aisles helped to buttress the nave, if it was vaulted. In the cases where half-barrel vaults were used, they effectively became like flying buttresses.

* Arches and openings: The arches used are nearly always semicircular, for openings such as doors and windows, for vaults and for arcades. Narrow doors and small windows might be surmounted by a solid stone lintel. Larger openings are nearly always arched. A characteristic feature of Romanesque architecture, both ecclesiastic and domestic, is the pairing of two arched windows or arcade openings, separated by a pillar or colonette and often set within a larger arch.

* Arcades: An arcade is a row of arches, supported on piers or columns. They occur in the interior of large churches, separating the nave from the aisles, and in large secular interiors spaces, such as the great hall of a castle, supporting the timbers of a roof or upper floor.

* Piers: piers were often employed to support arches.

* Columns: Columns are an important structural feature of Romanesque architecture. Colonnettes and attached shafts are also used structurally and for decoration.

* Vaults and roofs: The majority of buildings have wooden roofs and vaults of stone or brick.

The GOTHIC Architecture:

 

The Gothic style emerged in France. Cathedrals during this time honored one or more saints including the Virgin Mary. These churches served as the foal point for an urban community.

Gothic architecture is the architecture of the late medieval period, characterised by * use of the pointed arch. Other features common to Gothic architecture are *the rib vault, *buttresses, including *flying buttresses; *large windows which are often grouped, or have tracery; *rose windows, *gargoyles,*towers, *spires and *pinnacles; and *ornate façades.

 

Possible Islamic influence

 

The pointed arch, one of the defining attributes of Gothic, was earlier incorporated into Islamic architecture following the Islamic conquests of Roman Syria and the Sassanid Empire in the Seventh Century. The pointed arch and its precursors had been employed in late Roman and Sassanian architecture.

Increasing military and cultural contacts with the Muslim world, including the Norman conquest of Islamic Sicily in 1090, the Crusades, beginning 1096, and the Islamic presence in Spain, may have influenced Medieval Europe's adoption of the pointed arch, although this point remains controversial. Certainly, in those parts of the Western Mediterranean subject to Islamic control or influence, rich regional variants arose, fusing Romanesque and later Gothic traditions with Islamic decorative forms.

Natalia López Nieva
Creado: 01.10.2013 @ 9:06:39 am
Romanesque, gothic and Islamic architecture

Romanesque style is characterized by its arches, gloomy interiors in the buildings due to the lack or few small windows in the walls. The walls were made of heavy stones and the churches´interior resembled a cross. Churches were just for religious festivities. In the fachades there were religous ornamentations about Jesus , the Virgin Mary etc. The main purpose od these ornamentations was to retell biblical importan events to iliterate pleople who visited the churches in pilgrimages.
Regarding Gothic Style, it was characterized by the high pointed columns in the towers. The interior os churches also resembled a cross but they were wider . Differetn types of events were made there, not only religious. The building had bigger windows tahn in romanesque style, and they were ornamented with colour glasses with pictures of the bible too.
In the case of Islamic architecture, the mosque is the most important building for Muslims. These are enourmous prayer buildings. There are noy altars of any kind , they are empty just for people to go and pray. Mosques have high columns too and domes decorated with bright colours. The most important Mosques are in Cirdoba Spain and in Mecca.  

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